Biogas, as a renewable energy, can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and utilized for various energy services, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel.
Biogas is the gas produced after the breakdown of any organic matter (vegetables, animal manure, plant material, sewage, etc) in the absence of Oxygen. At a Sewage treatment facility, this is done in a huge chamber called a Digester. The major component of biogas is Methane (Chemical Formula: CH4). Methane is combustible and when ignited in presence of Oxygen, produces a lot of heat. This heat can be used for electricity generation, cooking, industrial heating, etc. But the presence of other gases in the mixture, primarily sulphur compunds like Hydrogen Sulphide can corrode the insides of the gas engines and other equipment. To prevent this, Bioscrubbers are installed which absorb these Sulphur impurities and produce almost 98% pure Methane.
With the world struggling with disposal of sewage waste, biogas has come as a boon for municipal authorities. It is an effective method of eco-friendly sewage disposal and surplus energy production. Biogas has a high calorific value of about 6 kWh/m3 – this corresponds to about half a liter of diesel oil. Also, the sludge remaining after Biogas production is high quality fertilizer whose Nitrogen content is three times more than any normal fertilizer used.